Queensland, Australia: Department of Natural Resources, Danthu P, Ickowicz A, Friot D, Manga R, Sarr A, 1996. Les Arbres Fixateurs d'Azote: Caractéristiques Fondamentales et Rôle dans L'aménagement des Écosystèmes Méditerranéens et Tropicaux. [11] Prior to Spanish colonization, the Guaraní people of South America brewed a beer from mashed Carob pods and wild honey. Oxford. Center Semi-Arid Forest Resources Publ. P. juliflora is often quoted as being native to the Caribbean, where it is often found in coastal areas, but several authors have suggested that it was introduced (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Burkart, 1976) possibly with the arrival of the first human settlers from Venezuela (ca 0-1000 AD) (Timyan, 1996). Legume straight with incurved apex, sometimes falcate, straw-yellow to brown, compressed, linear with parallel margins, stalked and acuminate, 8-29 cm long x 9-17 mm broad x 4-8 mm thick; stipe to 2 cm; endocarp segments up to 25, rectangular to subquadrate, mostly broader than long; seeds oval, brown, transverse. Turning invasive garaanwa (prosopis) trees into a new resource for feed, fuel and food security in Somaliland. Prosopis juliflora (Spanish: bayahonda blanca) is a shrub or small tree in the Fabaceae family, a kind of mesquite. Proceedings of the Prosopis symposium, University of Durham, UK Publishers 320 pp, El Fadl MA, 1997. 910 + 3 plates, Trenchard LJ, Harris PJC, Smith SJ, Pasiecznik NM, 2008. [ed. However, later introductions of P. pallida into Brazil from Peru beginning in the 1940s appear to be the source of the now dominant species in that region. and also the woody legume genera Acacia, Caesalpinia, Cercidium, Parkinsonia and Pithecellobium. It is mainly a tropical species, native to Mexico, Central and northern South America. The short, crooked bole can be up to 45cm in diameter[ 303 Soil and foliar characterization for Prosopis clones on sites with contrasting productivity in semi-arid South Texas. Japanese IUFRO Congress Council. In: Simpson BB, ed. Evaluation of multi-purpose trees in southern Spain. Bokrezion H, 2008. Journal of Arid Environments. Further thinning of trees in later years can also be carried out, or trees can be removed entirely from the site and the land returned to agriculture (e.g. The use of Prosopis juliflora for irrigated shelterbelts in arid conditions in northern Sudan. It then invaded the grasslands in and around Hambantota and the Bundala National Park, causing similar problems as in Australia and Ethiopia. (2011). The status and impact of Prosopis spp. Comparison of seedling containers on growth and survival of Prosopis alba and Leucaena leucocephala in semi-arid conditions. Kingsville, TX 2.45 - 3.1, Broun AF, Massey RE, 1929. In: Plant Protection Quarterly, 16 (1) 1-20. An Alien species is a species introduced by humans either intentionally or accidently outside of its natural past or present distribution. Mesquite: classification, distribution, ecology and control. (2011) separated P. juliflora and P. pallida with no mention of P. limensis and for the purposes of this datasheet, P. limensis is still taken as a synonym of P. pallida as a single overarching taxa in Peru/Ecuador. (2008) and Sherry et al. In Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, in the Telugu language it is known as mulla tumma (ముల్ల తుమ్మ),sarkar tumma,"chilla chettu","Japan Tumma Chettu","Seema Jaali", or "Kampa Chettu. It has become established as an invasive weed in Africa, Asia, Australia and elsewhere. Prosopis species are generally assumed to be self-incompatible (Solbrig and Cantino, 1975; Simpson, 1977), although some limited self-compatibility (4%) has been observed in P. juliflora following bagging and hand pollination (Sareen and Yadav, 1987). Prosopis juliflora is a legume tree or shrub native to northern South America, Central America and the Caribbean. Prosopis trees can rapidly form dense thorny thickets that reduce biodiversity and block irrigation channels, obstruct roads, and block smaller trails completely affecting access to pasture, croplands, water sources and fishing areas (Weber, 2003). Mexico (Panetta and Carstairs, 1989) or possibly from India or South Africa where Prosopis species had already become naturalized. Vol IV. Evidence for resolution of the "P. pallida-P. juliflora complex". Burkart, Prosopis pallida forma annularis Ferreyra, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. UPSC (IAS) Prelims 2020 is scheduled for October 4, 2020. at middle Awash Rift Valley area, north-eastern Ethiopia. Coventry, UK: HDRA, Pasiecznik NM, Harris PJC, Smith SJ, 2004. Aspects of their value, research and development. Griffon vulture – Least Concern. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. There are also metabolic changes within the leaf and the whole plant during periods of drought stress that better enable the plant to survive. Chemical control of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC. The use of a tractor-mounted flail-mower to cut rows through the stand is the most economical means of initial thinning. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors, Maghembe JA, Kariuki EM, Haller RD, 1983. However, different animals have very different effects on seed survival. This was so conspicuous that he suggested the possible reversion of Pacific coastal material to a former name, P. vidaliana (see also Pasiecznik et al., 2001). Differentiation of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. (Prosopis in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Optimizing the environment for rooting cuttings of highly productive clones of Prosopis alba (mesquite/algarrobo). Mainz, Germany: Johannes Gutenberg University, Bristow S, 1996. A report prepared as part of the Djibouti National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for the Bureau Nationale de la Diversite Biologique, Nairobi, Kenya: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) Sub-Saharan Africa Office. 9.0 9.1 One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. The twig girdler Oncideres limpida attacks P. pallida in Brazil (Lima, 1994), whereas Oncideres rhodostricta is seen as a serious pest of P. glandulosa in the USA (Polk and Ueckert, 1973). Seeds spread by rivers, ocean currents, floods etc. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 11(2): 168-175, Ali A, Labrada R, 2006. Indian Forester, 80:675-680, Ramanujam CGK, Kalpana TP, 1993. In: Felker P, Moss J, eds. Prosopis Juliflora – Pros and Cons. Coventry, UK: HDRA, 2 pp. 58 (2), 135-154. Center Semi-Arid Forest Resources Publ. Proliferation of honey mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) in Somaliland: Opportunities and Challenges Case Study., Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Candlelight for Health, Education and Environment. 57 (4), 450-525. Algarobia (Leguminosae). However, EPPO conducted a weed risk assessment in 2017 based on identified threats to parts of some member countries around the Mediterranean, notably on its southern and eastern shores. Invasion of alien Prosopis species in Israel, the West Bank and western Jordan: characteristics, distribution and control perspectives. A major limitation to the distribution of the truly tropical P. juliflora is mean minimum temperatures, and the frequency and duration of winter frosts. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 57(4):450-525; 9 pl, CABI, 2005. In Tamil Nadu, in Tamil language it is known as seemai karuvel (சீமைக்கருவேலை), which can be transliterated as (சீமை) foreign (or non-native) (கரு) "black" (வேலி) "fence". With its thorns and many low branches it forms impenetrable thickets which prevent cattle from accessing watering holes, etc. Algarrobos in South American cultures: past and present. An initial focus on biological control agents for the forest invasive species Prosopis juliflora in the dry zone of Myanmar. There are numerous other tree products including chemical extracts from the wood or pods, honey from the flowers, medicines from various plant parts, exudate gums, fibres, tannins and leaf compost. P. juliflora pods have a high sugar content, are low in anti-feedants and are widely sought after by a variety of animals. Molecular and morphological analysis was undertaken on Prosopis from Peru, Ecuador and Colombia by Palacios et al. Building Consensus for the Disenfranchised. The optimum temperature for germination of P. juliflora seeds is 30-35°C, with germination decreasing rapidly at temperatures below 20°C or above 40°C (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). In: Prosopis Species: Aspects of their Value, Research and Development, [ed. Willd.) [3] It is a contributing factor to continuing transmission of malaria, especially during dry periods when sugar sources from native plants are largely unavailable to mosquitoes. Ahmad R, Ismail S, Khan D, 1996. EPPO, 2020. Awale AI, Sugule AJ, 2006. In: Plantation Trees. The karyotype morphology of all species investigated was similar, with somatic chromosomes, which are very small (0.8-1.3 µm), showing slight variations in size within the complement. Efficacy of "Fernoxone" to prevent resprouting of cut-back Mesquite. Prosopis juliflora has become an invasive weed in several countries where it was introduced. (Mezquites Mexicanos: biodiversidad y distribución geográfica.) Building Consensus for the Disenfranchised. Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development. This followed the treatment by Johnston (1962), who divided P. juliflora into two races, the Central American, and Colombian-Caribbean race, mainly on the basis of leaflet length and noted the similarities and the differences between these two and the truly South American P. limensis [P. pallida]. Maximum damage to seed occurred where grazing was controlled, as the multiplication and progress is hampered by livestock devouring pods before the insects destroy them. Aung and Koike, 2015), there has been at least an initial focus on biological control agents for this forest invasive species (Than, 2011), with investigation for biological control agents conducted in Pyawbwe in January 2010. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. London, UK: Sudan Government House, Burkart A, 1940. Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 32:1-7, Chavan SA, 1986. H.B.K. It is generally accepted that the fruits and seeds are specialised for animal dispersion. World Agroforestry Centre. Water is an important dispersal agent of P. juliflora in desert ecosystems. A contribution to the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Karachi, Pakistan: Department of Botany, Khan D, Ahmad R, Ismail S, 1987. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Forest Ecology and Management, 29(3):135-150; 24 ref, Felker P, Smith D, Wiesmann C, 1986. The seed-feeding insects Mimosetes protractus and Neltumius arizonensis were introduced to eastern South Africa in conjunction with the bruchid beetles Algarobius prosopis and A. bottimeri for the control of invasive Prosopis species. There are records of P. juliflora in Ecuador and Peru (Burkart, 1976; Diaz Celis, 1995) however more recently these have been disputed and P. juliflora is absent from these countries (Palacios et al., 2011). Klinken RD van, Campbell S, 2001. The seeds of P. juliflora possess an inherently high level of dormancy. In: Biological Control of Tropical Weeds Using Arthropods [ed. Bol. It has however been suggested that the numbers and diversity of some mammal species increases due to improved cover from predators and hunters. The status and impact of Prosopis spp in Kenya. A second pass in the opposite direction ensures that roots on all sides are severed to ease tree removal (Jacoby and Ansley, 1991). inermis (H.B.K.) [10] Pods were once chewed during long journeys to stave off thirst. Utilization and nitrogen fixation of Prosopis juliflora in Senegal. 10 (3), 371-382. http://www.ijbbku.com, Johnston M C, 1962. Psyllids are known to severely affect the growth of Prosopis (Hodkinson, 1991) and have been suggested for use in controlling invasions. November 15th, 2015 Feedback Requested – GS I initiative. (Part 1 and 2.) www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/ProsopisKenyaSummaryReport.pdf, Pasiecznik NM, Felker P, 1992. Journal of Genetics, 90(2):251-264. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r274w08113qq/, Shibeshi A, Livingstone J, Pasiecznik N, 2016. Tree-grass dynamics in a Prosopis-thornscrub savanna parkland -reconstructing the past and predicting the future. Almost no records exist of early introductions of P. juliflora within its natural range but it may be assumed that there were introductions of varieties with sweet pods made by early man during his journeys across the Americas, or inadvertently by the domesticated animals which may have followed. These authors indicate that P. juliflora is exceptional in having at least some tetraploid forms (2n=56). The stems are shaped in a "mild zigzag" way with one or two stout thornsat each turn of the stem. DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00604-7, I3N Brasil, 2015. New approaches to industrialization of algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) pods in Peru. Plant Protection Quarterly, 16(1):1-20, Klinken RD van, Hoffmann JH, Zimmermann HG, Roberts AP, 2009. However, even then, the taxonomy was still uncertain, with Burkart noting that the two varieties var. (2001) appear to have been confirmed by morphological and molecular analysis, with populations raised to species level by Palacios (2006) and Palacios et al. var. Managing Prosopis juliflora (Vilayati babul): a Technical Manual. [UPSC 2018] (a) Its extract is widely used in cosmetics. P. juliflora is a valuable multi-purpose tree. 59 pp. DOI:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2003.08.011. Seed-feeding beetles, many of the family Bruchidae, have evolved alongside Prosopis and are very important in the ecology of American Prosopis species. AoB Plants, 2014:plu027. There appear to be several competing histories as to the introduction of P. juliflora into the Indian sub-continent, with no doubt that it first occurred in the nineteenth century. A diagnostic key to the various forms of introduced mesquite (Prosopis juliflora DC). The North American Mesquites, Prosopis Sect. and P. pallida (H. & B. ex. Weedy thickets with 1000-2500 trees/ha and dense infestations with over 2500 trees/ha need to be thinned to 100-625 trees/ha. Replacing free-ranging cattle with other livestock, particularly sheep and pigs, possibly in conjunction with other control methods, could drastically reduce the spread of Prosopis species. Total tree kill may be possible with some treatments, but adequate techniques for preventing the re-introduction of seeds and re-establishment of trees have yet to be developed. (Prosopis in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil.) The Prosopis juliflora is a species growing in Jamaica which I should be very glad to get seed of". Prosopis: a global assessment of the biogeography, benefits, impacts and management of one of the world's worst woody invasive plant taxa. Competitive interactions between two bruchid species (Algarobius spp.) Phenology, morphology, physiology. The flowers are in 5–10 cm long green-yellow cylindrical spikes, which occur in clusters of 2 to 5 at the ends of branches. Problems Posed by the Introduction of Prosopis spp. http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxon_ref.php, Fowler SV, 1998. Birds, bats, reptiles and ants also feed on Prosopis fruits and are potential, if only minor, agents of dispersal. Being adapted to arid and semi-arid climates, P. juliflora generally germinates and establishes during the brief rainy season and seedlings must be sufficiently well established to survive the first dry season. Phenological traits of some woody species grown on stress soil. nr. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading, Imran M, Surayya Khatoon, Sahar Zaidi, Ali QM, Ghulam Akbar, 2013. Originally known as Mimosa juliflora Sw., it became both Algarobia juliflora (Sw.) Benth. Pharmacists also advise patients not to drink alcohol with medicines as … A note on frost susceptibility in arid zone trees. http://aobpla.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/plu027.full, Sharma BM, 1984. Wallingford, UK: CABI. The ‘P. In: ACOTANC 2001, the 9th Australian Conference on Tree and Nut Crops. Mesquite, its Biology in Two Desert Shrub Ecosystems. Prosopis juliflora (mesquite); coppiced for fuelwood, and thinned to a single resprout per stump. It is however noted that with increased spread of the species the relationship will soon transform into an overall negative impact in a few years unless there are changes at the policy level. The following section on control methods is summarised from Pasiecznik et al. In: Assessment of the status of agrobiodiversity in Djibouti. Case study: development of a swath harvester for small diameter (<10 cm) woody vegetation. www.wanatca.au/acotanc/Papers/Pasiecznik-1/index.htm, Pasiecznik NM, 2006. [17], Prosopis juliflora has a wide range of vernacular names, although no widely used English one except for mesquite, which is used for several species of Prosopis. Prosopis: Semiarid Fuelwood and Forage Tree; Building Consensus for the Disenfranchised. in Sudan: history, distribution and control. Identifying tropical Prosopis species: a field guide [ed. In India, ammonium sulfamate was successful in killing P. juliflora trees and as a stump treatment (Panchal and Shetty, 1977). Biomass and Bioenergy, 10(1):57-61; 15 ref, Goel VL, Behl HM, 1996. P. juliflora dominates in dry, or seasonally dry, watercourses or depressions, and is often found in coastal flats and dunes. Prosopis. vidaliana. For example, spraying with herbicides produces dead wood that will ignite and support a sustained fire with more likelihood of killing the remaining trees. Tropical Forestry Reports 16. Imran M, Surayya Khatoon, Sahar Zaidi, Ali Q M, Ghulam Akbar, 2013. Trees for drylands. The role of Prosopis in reclaiming high-pH soils and in meeting firewood and forage needs of small farmers. Benth. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook 249, Luna RK, 1996. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 44(1): 135-140, Hunziker JH, Poggio L, Naranjo CA, Palacios RA, 1975. Prosopis: semi-arid fuelwood and forage tree. Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. All Prosopis species are able to survive in areas with exceptionally low annual rainfall or very lengthy dry periods but only if the roots are able to tap ground water or another permanent water source within the first few years. Prosopis juliflora, the precocious child of the plant world. Building Consensus for the Disenfranchised. glandulosa). Why is a plant called Prosopis juliflora often mentioned in news ? Prosopis species are often found colonising ephemeral watercourses and dispersal is aided by water flow in the rainy season, particularly during very wet years (Solbrig and Cantino, 1975). Proceeding of US-Pakistan Biosaline Research Workshop. Although trees do not necessarily have to be equally spaced, leaving open rows 5-10 m apart will facilitate access and increase the number of understorey management options possible with tractor operations. A monograph of the genus Prosopis (Leguminosae subfam. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15:1829-1844, Leakey RRB, Mesen JF, Tchoundjeu Z, Longman KA, Dick JM, Newton A, Matin A, Grace J, Munro RC, Muthoka PN, 1990. Mesquite, its Biology in Two Desert Shrub Ecosystems. Sucrose-phosphate synthase in tree species: light/dark regulation involves a component of protein turnover in Prosopis juliflora (SW DC). Invasives information network., Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development. > 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Introduced as a hedge and also spread from farm to farm, Still available from mail order catalogues (e.g. It also appears that both may be entirely tetraploid, being another reason to maintain them as no more varieties of a single ‘good’ species. However, pods and seed may adhere to agricultural machinery, but this is considered a minimal cause of spread. In: Simpson BB, ed. Comportamento silvicultural de especies de Prosopis, em Petrolina-PE, Regi¦o Semi-Arida Brasileira. Improving livelihoods and national food security in Djibouti through the use of underutilised raw materials: Assessment of the potential of the Djibouti livestock feed factory for production of Prosopis-based animal feeds. The following three varieties were accepted by Burkart (1976) and without any information to the contrary, also by Pasiecznik et al. Forest Ecology and Management, 48(1-2):1-13, Lima PCF, 1994. P. juliflora has been widely introduced around the world intentionally, due to its value as a fuel/fodder species and also an ornamental in some regions. Two other species, one a psyllid and the other a mirid, were identified as attacking P. juliflora on Ascension Island and were thought to have been introduced accidentally from the Caribbean. Mechanical cleaning of Prosopis seed. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Weed Research, UK, 29(3):157-165, Pasiecznik N, Choge S, Fre Z, Tsegay B, Parra F, 2015. P. juliflora propagules are not traded and are only rarely introduced accidentally by any other means (e.g. juliflora, var. Journal of Arid Environments, 18(3):351-365, Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Algarobia juliflora (Sw.) Heynh. Altitude appears to have a limited effect on distribution. It is claimed that P. juliflora existed and was recognised even as a holy tree in ancient India, but this is most likely a confusion with Prosopis cineraria. CABI, Undated. naturally by water or inside live animal exports). The vilayati kikar, Prosopis juliflora, allows no other species to thrive. in Selected Countries, Rome, Italy: FAO. The presence of P. juliflora as a readily available source of fuel has drastically reduced the over-exploitation and illegal cutting in protected reserves. Trees with desirable characteristics and at defined spacings should be marked, and all others removed and the stumps treated. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. PDF | On Oct 30, 2020, Nidhi Yadav and others published Pharmacological and pharmacognostical aspect of Prosopis juliflora: A review | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate (2012), including a number of further divisions. EPPO Global database. ©Colin Hughes, Dept. Discovery of thornless, non-browsed, erect tropical Prosopis in 3-year-old Haitian progeny trials. The advent of Prosopis juliflora in the early 1970s is a classic example of this condition. Building Consensus for the Disenfranchised. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br. Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki. P. juliflora is particularly well able to tolerate alkaline soils, with marginal reduction in growth up to pH 9, and will survive and grow in soils of pH 11 (Singh, 1996). Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki, El-Fadl MA, 1997. Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) For example, spraying with herbicides produces dead wood that will ignite and support a sustained fire with more likelihood of killing the remaining trees. Prosopis stand density increases if land-use systems allow the establishment of seedlings, leading to the formation of dense thickets where conditions allow. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 9: 117-118; 6 ref. International Tree Crops Journal, 1:125-130, Faridah Hanum I, Maesen LJG van der, eds. International Tree Crops Journal, 8:193-201, Goel VL, Behl HM, 1996. Than (2011) reported that P. juliflora appeared to struggle to compete with the climber Combretum roxburghii [C. album] and the shrub Azima sarmentosa. Prosopis juliflora, is an invasive plant. Prosopis juliflora, the precocious child of the plant world. It is very desirable to introduce these trees into the fuel plantations in our dry districts; and I have the honour to suggest that the British Consuls at Galveston and San Francisco should be applied to for the seed. The mesquites and screwbeans of the United States. Mimosoideae). Racemes cylindric, 7-15 cm long, rachis puberulent; florets as usual, greenish-white, turning light yellow. Selected trees are then pruned to improve form, by removing any basal shoots and side branches to at least one-half of tree height for timber production, leaving a clear bole preferably over 2 m. A shorter bole and broader crown is preferred for pod production. The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Archer, 1995) and for long periods in South America (e.g. It is considered a noxious invader in Ethiopia, Hawaii[2], Sri Lanka, Jamaica, Kenya, the Middle East, India, Nigeria, Sudan, Somalia, Senegal, South Africa, Namibia and Botswana. In Pakistan, hand grubbing was cheaper than chemical stump treatment (Khan, 1961). The tree is believed to have existed in the Vanni and Mannar regions for a long time[citation needed]. Ascot, UK: CABI Bioscience, Goel VL, Behl HM, 1995. Plant resources of southeast Asia. Journal of Arid Environments, 27:79-84, Weber E, 2003. A mature plant can produce hundreds 183-189, "Productos forestales no maderables de los bosques secos de Macara, Loja, Ecuador", http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/guidelines/wons/pubs/prosopis.pdf, "Devil of a problem: the tree that's eating Africa", "Will Katu-andara Destroy the Biodiversity of Bundala Wet Land? Prosopis as a niche component. Soil nutrient status is rarely a limiting factor to distribution. Note scale. The tree is said to have been introduced to Sri Lanka in the 19th century, where it is now known as vanni-andara, or katu andara in Sinhala. Alien and invasive plant species of the Indus Delta. P. juliflora usually begins to flower and fruit after 2-3 years, but this is highly depended upon site conditions, as trees as young as 12 months old have been observed to flower in the Sahel, and trees 15 years or more old on poor exposed sites have never been seen to flower (Pasiecznik et al., 2001). Silvicultural treatments for sapling mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/, Raizada MB, Chatterji RN, 1954. Diagne O, 1992. ex Heynh. Important plant areas in the Arabian Peninsula: 2. horrida, differed from var. ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. Invasives information network. inermis (H.B.K.) Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) The following description is taken from Burkart (1976) as the over-arching species morphology including all varieties from all parts of the world. Prosopis Species in the Arid and Semi-Arid Zones of India. II International Conference on Prosopis, Recife, Brazil, 25-29 August, 1986. Punjab Forestry Record (Silva Publ.) (2014). Incorporating bees into the system will produce honey and wax and increase pod production, and the trees could be a minor source of other raw materials. For an extensive list of pests and pathogens known to attack P. juliflora and related species, refer to Pasiecznik et al. Chaining involves pulling a heavy chain between two slow-moving Caterpillar tractors, with the effect of pulling over larger trees and uprooting them. BioInvasions Records, 6(1):1-7, Dutton RW, 1992. It is thought that the accidental introduction of Prosopis seed as a contaminant is unlikely, though there remains a possibility for the introduction via live livestock imports where the animals have been fed on Prosopis pods either just before, or during, transit. Effectiveness is dependent upon chemical uptake, which in Prosopis is limited by the thick bark, woody stems and small leaves with a protective waxy outer layer. Tropical Forestry Reports - Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, No. Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC, here after referred to as Prosopis, is an evergreen tree native to South America, Central America and the Caribbean. In: Problems Posed by the Introduction of Prosopis spp. It appears that P. juliflora was already present in Egypt by the early 1900s, and was introduced into Sudan by RE Massey from the Egyptian Department of Agriculture at Giza and from South Africa both in 1917 (Broun and Massey, 1929; in El Fadl, 1997). However, where identified as an invasive species in dry zone in northern Myanmar (e.g. East African Network for Taxonomy. , 1990. Other advantages are that only a single pass is required, and whole site cultivation is effected leading to improved soil water conservation, and there is a chance to reseed with improved forage species. ex Heynh. Australian weeds series: Prosopis species. Principal uses are wood for fuel, posts, poles and sawn timber, and pods for fodder. Glues, turns, and finishes well. Prosopis juliflora Name Synonyms Acacia cumanensis Willd. Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J Y, 2007. (2003), suggests that this is not the basis for widespread introductions in India and possibly elsewhere.

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