It is deeply rooted in Afghanistan’s history. In 1933 King Mohammed Nadir Khan … To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department. However, the British on account of their superior position, secretary for foreign affairs of the British India, Henry Durand, arrived in Kabul to talk to Abdur Rahman Khan. Thousands of men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul. News-letter No.21, This Masters thesis examines how the Amir of Afghanistan Abdur Rahman Khan (who reigned 1980-1901) legitimized his campaign of extermination on the Hazara people of Afghanistan and as well as an analysis on the reaction from the Hazaras. The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan ʻAbd al-Rahman Khan (1844‒1901) ruled Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. This revolt took the government forces by surprise and the Hazara managed to take most of Hazarajat back. On 1893, Abdur Rahman Khan had agreed to a new frontier, Durand line. The Sultan Ahmad Hazara tribe of Uruzgan was reduced from 3,000 families to just 60 by the repression of Abdur Rahman. To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department. The movement was formed in protest against a government decision to change the route of a major power transmission line, which was previously planned to import electricity from Turkmenistan through the province of Bamyan to Kabul and other provinces in the south and east of the country. 27 January 1893. When Abdur Rahman Khan became the ruler of Afghanistan, he favored the Pashtun people and despised the Hazara people leading to the death of 60% of the Hazara population. By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 26 August 1893. [1][4] There is a famous story of 40 Hazara girls in Uruzgan committing suicide to escape sex slavery during the persecution. Abdur Rahman khan, known as the iron Amir is considered the founding father of the modern Afghanistan. Sixty percent of the total Hazara population was kil… Governments even went a step further, trying to erase this human tragedy from history. Website created by Wide Eye, Made by On July 23, 2016, two suicide bombers targeted a peaceful rally at the Deh Mazang Square of Kabul. [14] Small pockets of resistance continued to the end of the year as government troops committed atrocities against civilians and deported entire villages. We must ensure democracy by securing every vote at home first in order to advocate for the values of fairness and equity elsewhere. News.D.No.186 F. No.2257, Quetta, 28 April 1893, However, the division between the Afghan government and the Hazara people was already made too deep under Abdur Rahman and as a result Hazaras continued to face severe social, economic and political discrimination through … Massacre of Hazaras in Afghanistan (1993 - 2001) ... Habibullah Khan (son of Abdur Rahman Khan) Letter, 1901 ; Religious decrees calling Hazaras infidels and to be killed [ more in Download section] He was the third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan. [11] Abdur Rahman kept various Hazara chiefs as hostages in Kabul; yet eventually sent them back to Uruzgan;[12] after the revolt was crushed they were then sent back to Kabul again. No.34, The Hazara people’s place of origin is Hazarajat, a region in Afghanistan. News-letter No.16, [1], The movement was formed in protest against a government decision to change the route of a major power transmission line, which was previously planned to import electricity from Turkmenistan through the province of Bamyan to Kabul and other provinces in the south and east of the country. Fisher Gernman LLP conducted a survey that showed a powerline route through Bamyan was best positioned to serve communities in need. Thousands of men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul. However, in April 2016, the government announced a plan to change the route from Bamyan to the Salang Pass at the Hindu Kush Mountains, which connected Kabul to an existing power distortion line from the Central Asian Republics.[2]. News. My family founded the very first English and computer learning center, “Payam-e-Sahar,” in Western Kabul. From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I.,C.B.,R.E.,Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, Afghans successfully resisted their control and maintained their independence. I know a Pashtun whose family lives in an area where a tower was built by Abdur Rahman Khan with the skulls of the villager’s elders (and they were all Pashtun). By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 10 February 1893. Emir of Afghanistan; Reign: 31 May 1880 – 1 October 1901: Predecessor: Ayub Khan: Successor: Habibullah Khan: Born: 1840–1844 Kabul, Afghanistan: Died: This was a genocide. ... Hazara tribes in central Afghanistan (Hazarajat), Uzbek, Tajik and Turkmen tribes, Nuristanis and some others. By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 17 March 1893. To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department. On November 12, 1893, King Abdur Rahman Khan and Sir Henry Mortimer Durand (British Envoy) agreed on seven points known as Durand Line Agreement to demarcate the line between Afghanistan and British India approximately 2,640 kilometers long (presently much of Baluchistan, large parts of the Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Province and the whole of the Federally … We moved to Dasht-e-Barchi, 13th District of Kabul, a community that lacked government-provided security. These classes were eye-opening and ignited a fire of hope among the new generation, while also sparking fear among religious entities such as Muhamad Asif Mohseni. In the 1890s, Abdur Rahman Khan massacred and displaced more than half of the Hazara population, but so far none of the successive governments have even acknowledged this. [22] Others settled in and around Mashad, in the Khorasan Province of Iran.[21]. He was a grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan (ruled 1826‒39 and 1845‒63), the founder of the Barakzai dynasty of Afghanistan after the fall of the Durranis and the end of the First Anglo-Afghan War in 1842. After long years in exile in Central Asia, Rahman came to power in Afghanistan with the … Also, historically, organized violence has been used as a strategy for political power and the Hazaras have fallen victim to this for over a decade. By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 21 April 1893. I counted each grave and looked at their photos and biographies on display — 86 Hazara lives were taken because they fought for democracy and protested structural racism in the country. News-Letter No 3. News-letter No.20, From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I.,C.B.,R.E.,Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department. The Junbesh-e Roshanaye Memorial is on top of a hill in the 13. Abdur Rahman Khan - Persecution and Genocide of Hazara People Persecution and Genocide of Hazara People Persecution of Hazara people refers to systematic discrimination, ethnic cleansing and genocide of Hazara people, who are primarily from the central highland region of Hazarajat … In the late 19th century, the Hazara people launched a series of uprisings against Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, one of the British empire’s pawns, who attempted to bring Hazarajat under his control. The structural discrimination against the Hazaras is not a new phenomenon. Diaries.D.No 62, No. anniversary of the Hazara genocide by Abdur Rahman Khan where 62 percent of Hazara men, women, and children were slaughtered. However, the division between the Afghan government and the Hazara people was already made too deep under Abdur Rahman and as a result Hazaras continued to face severe social, economic and political discrimination through … Although German Fisher LLP suggested the Bamyan route and the Hazaras expressed support of this route, the government decided against it and did not make any effort to protect its people ahead of the protest. My students were all older than me, but we had to start from somewhere. To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department. [5] The governor of Balochistan reported to the foreign department of India that he believed Abdur Rahman was intending to exterminate the Hazaras. More than half of the Hazara population was murdered by Abdur Rahman Khan. The “Vizier’s Daughter” is a book written by Lillias Hamilton, a court physician to Amir Abdur Rahman Khan in Afghanistan in the 1890s. Quetta’s geography made it the safest & nearest place for the Hazara population that was persecuted in Afghanistan from the time of King Abdur Rahman Khan. In the late 19th century, Abdur Rahman Khan, the Emir of Afghanistan, ruthlessly oppressed the Hazara community. When Abdur Rahman Khan became the ruler of Afghanistan, he favored the Pashtun people and despised the Hazara people leading to the death of 60% of the Hazara population. They were halted from their uprising because they had a shortage of food. In “The Hazaras and the Afghan State,” Ibrahimi analyzes Afghanistan’s state-building as a historical reconstruction that relies on dynamics of selection and exclusion in distribution of state power, which results in ethnic hierarchies of power. Hazaras have been living in Afghanistan before partition since 1880s. In 1901, Habibullah Khan, Abdur Rahman’s successor, granted amnesty to all people who were exiled by his predecessor. Hazara farmers were often forced to give up their property to Pashtuns and as a result many Hazara families had to leave seasonally to the major cities in Afghanistan, Iran, or Pakistan in order to find jobs and a source of income. Former President Karzai understood this issue and he established an Afghan National Police office in the 13, Nahid Paiman is a policy assistant at The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, Niamatuallah Ibrahimi, The Hazaras and the Afghan State: Rebellion, Exclusion and the Struggle for Recognition (London: C. Hurst & Company, 2016), Ibrahimi, The Hazaras and the Afghan State, B. Battles, The third uprising of Hazara was in response to excessive taxation,[7][8] starting in early 1893. By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Taki Khan, Abdur Rahman khan, known as the iron Amir is considered the founding father of the modern Afghanistan. For more than a century, the Hazaras have experienced ethnic cleansing, slavery, land grabbing, unwarranted taxes, looting, and pillaging of homes, which have systematically excluded them from the government, economic opportunities, and social dynamics. This Masters thesis examines how the Amir of Afghanistan Abdur Rahman Khan (who reigned 1980-1901) legitimized his campaign of extermination on the Hazara people of Afghanistan and as well as an analysis on the reaction from the Hazaras. In 1901, Habibullah Khan, Abdur Rahman's successor, granted amnesty to all people who were exiled by his predecessor. The Hazara people’s place of origin is Hazarajat, a region in Afghanistan. A. Dawlatabadi, Hazaraha az qatl-e aam ta ehyae-e howiat (Hazaras from Massacres to Revival of Identity) (Qom: Ebterkar-e Danish, 2009), Dawlatabadi, Hazaraha az qatl-e aam ta ehyae-e howiat, 1620 L Street NW, Suite 1100, Washington, DC 20036. He held open courts for the receipt of petitioners and the dispensation of justice; and in the disposal of business he was indefatigable. All rights reserved. To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department. Abdur Rahman also catalyzed the hatred and conflict between the Hazara and the Pahstun people for many years. Abdur Rahman Khan created misleading propaganda against all Hazaras, oppressing and marginalizing them with an impact that is still rooted in the structure and systems of government. He was the third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan. Hazara continued to face severe social, economic and political discrimination through most of the 20th century. By Khan Bahadur, Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 27 May 1893. News-letter No.11, As a response to our protest, Mohseni’s supporters attacked Marefat School because it taught democracy — an idea that granted equal rights to women. In 1901, Habibullah Khan, Abdur Rahman's successor, granted amnesty to all people who were exiled by his predecessor.However, the division between the Afghan government and the Hazara people was already made too deep under Abdur Rahman. Abdur Rahman Khan (Pashto: عبد رحمان خان ‎) (between 1830 to 1844 – October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. When Abdur Rahman Khan came from Bohkara (1880) and beat Sher Ali Khan and took the Kabul Kingdom, the Hazara mirs were for Sher Ali, and they therefore made a big rebellion against Abdur Rahman Khan [there were continuously more or … Abdur Rahman Khan’s kingdom is one of the darkest periods of Afghan history. When Abdur Rahman Khan came from Bohkara (1880) and beat Sher Ali Khan and took the Kabul Kingdom, the Hazara mirs were for Sher Ali, and they therefore made a big rebellion against Abdur Rahman Khan [there were continuously more or … London backed newspaper documenting the selling of 10,000 Hazaras as slaves in Cabul. Afghanistan is a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual nation, but only the Pashtun ethnicity has ruled the country throughout kingdoms and presidencies. From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I.,C.B.,R.E.,Agent to the governor-general in Balochistan, In April 2009, my friends and I joined a peaceful demonstration against the Shia Family Law, proposed by Mohseni, a national law that legalized rape and banned women from getting an education and work outside their homes. Almost all migrated due to persecution by Abdur Rahman Khan and a good part in 1990's due to ethnic cleansing by the Afghan Taliban. In 2002, Marefat School, a community-supported private school in Western Kabul, began offering classes on human rights and democracy. ©2021 Copyright ©2019 The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights/The Leadership Conference Education Fund. A Abdur Rahman Khan created misleading propaganda against all Hazaras, oppressing and marginalizing them with an impact that is still rooted in the structure and systems of government. In 1901, Habibullah Khan, Abdur Rahman's successor, granted amnesty to all people who were exiled by his predecessor.However, the division between the Afghan government and the Hazara people was already made too deep under Abdur Rahman. Quetta’s geography made it the safest & nearest place for the Hazara population that was persecuted in Afghanistan from the time of King Abdur Rahman Khan. Because of our demonstration and the pressure from the international community, the sections of the Shia Family Law on legalizing rape and prohibiting women from going to school or work were removed. The migration of the Hazara community to Baluchistan is 150 years old, the most recent wave was triggered by the Taliban government in Afghanistan after 1996. Quetta in Pakistan is home to the third largest settlements of Hazara outside Afghanistan. To this date, Pashtuns comprise the largest ethnic in Afghanistan, while the Hazara is about 20 percent of the population and have faced constant persecution from the Pashtuns. [6] Additionally, this year marks the 22nd anniversary of mass murder of the Hazaras by Taliban in Mazar-e-Sharif where 10,000 Hazara civilians were brutally murdered.[7]. In April 2018, I visited my family in Kabul and I asked family members to visit the Junbesh-e Roshanaye memorial. [3] The government’s decision to change the route for a major power transmission through areas that already had power indicate the systemic discrimination against the Hazaras. News.D.No.48 F. No.124 F.C.,dated Sibi, 27 January 1893. From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I.,C.B.,R.E.,Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, Fisher Gernman LLP conducted a survey that showed a powerline route through Bamyan was best positioned to serve communities in need. It highlighted the growing frustration and discontent among the Hazaras regarding their share of national resources and foreign aid. News.D.No.243 F. No.2903, dated Quetta, 5 June 1893. "[4] In 1894 802 Hazara leaders who survived the rebellion were killed or exiled after being captured. This letter was supposedly a “confession” of the Hazara genocide from 1891-93 and distribution of Hazara lands to Pashtun refugees and the thousands of Hazaras who were sold as slaves. My legs were shaking and I could not breathe as I walked through the graves of young Hazara men and women, who were once university students and professors. Hazara women and children were sold as slaves to the Pushtuns particapating in the blood bath as a reward. Under directions of Mr. Riaz Mahsud Commissioner Hazara Division and... Dr. Qasim Ali Khan Deputy Commissioner Mansehra, AC-ll Ms Sundus Irshad carried out inspection of Bazar to check for implementation of corona SOPs at datta transport adda at … It is deeply rooted in Afghanistan’s history. News. News.D.No.29 F. No.26 F.C.,dated Camp Jacobabad, 14 January 1893. The 1888–1893 Uprisings of Hazaras occurred when the Treaty of Gandomak was signed and the Second Anglo-Afghan … From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I.,C.B.,R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, The revolt was short-lived and annihilated; Abdur had taken advantage of the fact that the Sheikh Ali Hazaras had allies in different groups, pitting the Sunni and Shia Hazaras against each other. The government’s decision to change the route for a major power transmission through areas that already had power indicate the systemic discrimination against the Hazaras. It was originally established in 1893 between Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat and civil servant of the British Raj, and Abdur Rahman Khan, the Afghan Emir, to fix the limit of their respective spheres of influence and improve diplomatic relations and trade. anniversary of mass murder of the Hazaras by Taliban in Mazar-e-Sharif where 10,000 Hazara civilians were brutally murdered. By the 1890s, a large Hazara community had settled in the Pakistani city of Quetta in the south-western province of Balochistan, having fled brutal persecution under the regime of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B., R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, Marginalized communities around the world can learn from each other’s experiences and together fight for justice and democracy. Later, during the reign of Abdur Rahman Khan (1880-1901), the boundaries of present-day Afghanistan were demarcated by the British and Russian empires to create a buffer zone with a minimal involvement of the Afghan rulers. It highlighted the growing frustration and discontent among the Hazaras regarding their share of national resources and foreign aid. ʻAbd al-Rahman Khan (1844‒1901) ruled Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. [9] The provincial forces responded to the revolt with military force; in this response the Hakim of Gizu reported to the governor general of balochistan that General Mir Atta Khan at Gizu committed "great excesses" in Gizu. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1888–1893_Uprisings_of_Hazaras&oldid=995839617, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 04:26. He was a grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan (ruled 1826‒39 and 1845‒63), the founder of the Barakzai dynasty of Afghanistan after the fall of the Durranis and the end of the First Anglo-Afghan War in 1842. D.No.85 F. No.300 F.C., dated Sibi, 25 February 1893. Post-911, the United States’ presence in Afghanistan came with the idea of democracy, freedom of speech, and human and civil rights. In 1901, Habibullah Khan, Abdur Rahman’s successor, granted amnesty to all people who were exiled by his predecessor. Wide Eye, In April 2018, I visited my family in Kabul and I asked family members to visit the Junbesh-e Roshanaye memorial. My father wrote a letter to former President Hamid Karzai about the poor security in our community, which he had the opportunity to read to the president directly. From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I.,C.B.,R.E.,Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, This year’s elections in the United States are incredibly crucial both here and for the rest of the world. aNiamatuallah Ibrahimi, The Hazaras and the Afghan State: Rebellion, Exclusion and the Struggle for Recognition (London: C. Hurst & Company, 2016), [2] Ibrahimi, The Hazaras and the Afghan State, [3] Ibrahimi, The Hazaras and the Afghan State, [4] B. Some others the founding father of the Islamic Movement of Afghanistan, ruthlessly oppressed the Hazara ’... 13, District of Kabul to remember the lives of Hazara outside Afghanistan and founder of 20th. 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